This page is an index to information about groups of matching Y-DNA results
in the Taylor Family Genes Project. These groups are also known as "clusters" or
As new results are received, our dedicated volunteers investigate to see if these results match
others in our project database. When we find matches, we place them in groups numbered
in the order found.
We have, so far, identified 64 separate matching Y-DNA groups with from 2 to 12 members
each and three super-groups for certain common haplotypes. We have a page for
each group which eases correlating YDNA values with documented tree information.
- The genetic families, also known as "clusters", include
only matches within the Taylor Family Genes project. Matches with non-project members are
- Super-groups consist of members who match identified common haplotypes:
the Western Atlantic Modal Haplotype (WAMH), one marker off from WAMH, and
"Niall of the Nine Hostages". Inclusion in these super-groups does not
imply a high probability of sharing a common ancestor within genealogic
Click links (group number) to visit genetic family page.
While matching a haplogroup is not sufficient to identify a common male ancestor, a difference in
haplogroups is sufficient to exclude a common male ancestor. So, it's a convenient way to
results which may be less relevant to you.
Remember that letters and numbers added on to the haplogroup designation merely refine it
and identify it with more specificity; they do not remove it from the larger,
more general category.
To use an analogy, Idaho is a more specific term than "United States", but
Idaho is within the US. "R1b1a2a1b5" is simply a more precise designation than R1b1 of which
it is a part.
Click links to visit group.
Unmatched, by Haplogroup
Click links to visit group.
R1b has the most participants in the Project
(>250) and the largest number
unmatched (>100). We are still working on a good way of making the information
easily accessible. We may divide them up by kit number, or by specific
haplogroup within R1b. In the meantime, a page listing some unmatched R1b members
and information about the haplogroup is
Contents of Group pages include:
- Member Chart: All the kit owners/donors in
the matched group, their Most Distant (earliest) Known Ancestor, and a link to each
- Facts about the Group: This section
contains information about the paternal lineage of the group. When feasible
it is by group members who describe some
historical facts about their ancestors. To submit for this section, e-mail
and include the group number.
- Y-DNA Results: A chart of all markers is displayed showing the
mode (most frequent value) for that group and the number who've had that
marker tested. this is a group summary; we do not publish individual
members' Y-DNA results.
A "matched group" (sometimes called a "cluster") is composed of two or more project members who we've found to have
Y-DNA matching to degrees indicating they have a high probability of sharing a common
paternal ancestor within genealogic time. These indicate a common
male ancestor within the genealogical time frame. If your results match
other members', we will place you in the appropriate group and remove your information from the
Effective February 2010, our standard for forming or adding to groups is that
Y-DNA indicates a high probability for sharing a common male
ancestor within genealogic time. In other words, if we have
declared a match and placed you in a group, it should usually be possible
through research to identify the group's shared common male ancestor (CMA).
In terms of Y-DNA matches, this translates to:
- 12 markers: No 12-marker matches qualify under this standard.
(Some groups were previously formed with 12/12 (or 0:12) matches; these have
not been revoked, but sould be regarded with caution.)
- 25 markers: Preferably, evaluated at 37 or more markers; if not
possible: a genetic distance of zero.
- 37 markers: Genetic distance of 2
- 67 markers: Genetic distance of 5 or
- 111 markers: We do not yet have a standard for 111 markers. We
currently use the 67-marker standard.
FTDNA reports matches in terms of "genetic distance" (abbreviated GD). This is, roughly, the sum of the absolute
differences in allele values on all markers compared. With absolute values a +2 and a -1 add to 3,
not +1. For most markers FTDNA uses this "stepwise model" for calculating genetic distances. But for
a few, highly volatile markers, FTDNA uses the "infinite alleles model" and calculates any allele
difference as +1.
We express such matches as genetic distance, followed by a colon, followed by the number of
markers compared. For example, a genetic distance of 2 across 37 markers is expressed as "2:37".
The TiP calculation engine, available on the FTDNA website, is -- according to some -- the most
sophisticated and precise TMRCA (time to most recent common ancestor) calculator currently available. Its claimed advantages
- Using specific mutation rates for individual markers, rather than one average rate for all markers
- Using a combination of the stepwise and infinite alleles methods -- stepwise for most markers and
infinite alleles for especially volatile markers.
These claims are difficult to evaluate. The TiP engine relies on proprietary FTDNA information, which is
undisclosed. The author has observed that -- for matches of quality high
enough to meet FTDNA reporting thresholds -- TiP tends to yield probabilities higher than other TMRCA
calculators. This difference isn't apparently explainable by the methodological
The minimum size for a group is two members. The largest size for an identified group is (so far)
12 members; average group size is about 3.5 members.
Many project members have matches (sometimes of high quality) with non-members, but no qualifying
matches with other project members. Often, too, a non-member will have an otherwise qualifying match with
an existing matched group. We can not form matched groups between project members and non-members,
nor include non-members in the groups. Project administration is not
permitted access to non-members' DNA information.
Non-members with qualifying matches are invited to join the project, at which point their matches will be evaluated
for inclusion in matched groups.
Go to Top