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This page is an index to information about groups of matching Y-DNA results in the Taylor Family Genes Project. These groups are also known as "clusters" or "genetic families".

 As new results are received, our dedicated volunteers investigate to see if these results match others in our project database. When we find matches, we place them in groups numbered in the order found.

We have, so far, identified 64 separate matching Y-DNA groups with from 2 to 12 members each and three super-groups for certain common haplotypes. We have a page for each group which eases correlating YDNA values with documented tree information.

Genetic Families by Group Number

Click links (group number) to visit genetic family page.

Links to Genetic Families

I1-01 R1b-02 R1b-03 R1b-04 R1b-05 R1b-06 R1b-07 R1b-08 R1b-09
J2-10 R1b-11 R1b-12 R1b-13   I2-14 R1b-15 R1b-16 I1-17 R1b-18
R1b-19 R1b-20 E1b-21 R1b-22 I1-23 R1b-24 R1b-25 R1b-26 R1b-27
R1b-28 I1-29 R1b-30 R1b-31 R1a-32 R1b-33 R1b-34 R1b-35 R1b-36 
R1b-37  R1b-38 R1b-39 I1-40 I1-41 G2-42 R1b-43 G-44 R1b-45
R1b-46 R1b-47 R1b-48 R1b-49 I2b-50 R1b-51 R1b-52 R1b-53 R1b-54
G-55 R1b-56 I2-57 R1b-58 I1-59 R1a-60 R1b-61 J1-62 R1b-63
R1b-64 I1-65 R1b-66 R1b-67 R1b-68 R1b-69 R1b-70 R1b-71 R1b-72
R1b-73 R1b-74 R1b-75
(x 15a)
I2-76 R1b-77 I2-78 R1a-79 R1b-80



Genetic Families by Haplogroups

While matching a haplogroup is not sufficient to identify a common male ancestor, a difference in haplogroups is sufficient to exclude a common male ancestor. So, it's a convenient way to exclude results which may be less relevant to you.

Remember that letters and numbers added on to the haplogroup designation merely refine it and identify it with more specificity; they do not remove it from the larger, more general category. To use an analogy, Idaho is a more specific term than "United States", but Idaho is within the US. "R1b1a2a1b5" is simply a more precise designation than R1b1 of which it is a part.

Click links to visit group.

Unmatched, by Haplogroup

Haplogroups E, G, I, J, R1a

Click links to visit group.

E G I J R1a

Haplogroup R1b

R1b has the most participants in the Project (>250) and the largest number unmatched (>100). We are still working on a good way of making the information easily accessible. We may divide them up by kit number, or by specific haplogroup within R1b. In the meantime, a page listing some unmatched R1b members and information about the haplogroup is here.

Contents of Group Pages

Contents of Group pages include:

  1. Member Chart: All the kit owners/donors in the genetic family, their Most Distant (earliest) Known Ancestor, and a link to each tree.
  2. Facts about the Group: This section contains information about the paternal lineage of the group. When feasible it is by group members who describe some historical facts about their ancestors. To submit for this section, e-mail the webmaster and include the group number.
  3. Y-DNA Results: A chart of all markers is displayed showing the mode (most frequent value) for that group and the number who've had that marker tested. this is a group summary; we do not publish individual members' Y-DNA results.
  4. TiP Scores: A summary of the "relatedness index" of the genetic family. The index number is the probability of a common ancestor within the past 24 generations as measuured at 37 markers with no paper-trail adjustment.
  5. Fluxus Network Diagram: If a genetic family has three or more members, a diagram shows pictorially how the members are genetically related by mutations from the modal haplotype. This can be helpful in determining branches of the family.

What is a genetic family?

A genetic family (sometimes called a "cluster" or "matched group" ) is composed of two or more project members who we've found to have Y-DNA matching to degrees indicating they have a high probability of sharing a common paternal ancestor within genealogic time. These indicate a common male ancestor within the genealogical time frame.  If your results match other members', we will place you in the appropriate group and remove your information from the "ungrouped" category. 

Group standard

Effective February 2010, our standard for forming or adding to groups is that Y-DNA indicates a high probability for sharing a common male ancestor within genealogic time. In other words, if we have declared a match and placed you in a group, it should usually be possible through research to identify the group's shared common male ancestor (CMA).

In terms of Y-DNA matches, this translates to: 

Paper Trails

Your reported genealogy will not, by itself, place you in a genetic family. A well-documented paper trail may sway an ambiguous situation toward inclusion, but the major consideration will be the genetic findings.

What is Genetic Distance?

FTDNA reports matches in terms of "genetic distance" (abbreviated GD). This is, roughly, the sum of the absolute differences in allele values on all markers compared. With absolute values a +2 and a -1 add to 3, not +1. For most markers FTDNA uses this "stepwise model" for calculating genetic distances. But for a few, highly volatile markers, FTDNA uses the "infinite alleles model" and calculates any allele difference as +1.

We express such matches as genetic distance, followed by a colon, followed by the number of markers compared. For example, a genetic distance of 2 across 37 markers is expressed as "2:37".


The TiP calculation engine, available on the FTDNA website, is -- according to some -- the most sophisticated and precise TMRCA (time to most recent common ancestor) calculator currently available. Its claimed advantages include:

These claims are difficult to evaluate. The TiP engine relies on proprietary FTDNA information, which is undisclosed. The author has observed that -- for matches of quality  high enough to meet FTDNA reporting thresholds -- TiP tends to yield probabilities higher than other TMRCA calculators. This difference isn't apparently explainable by the methodological differences.

Group Size

The minimum size for a group is two members. The largest size for an identified group is (so far) 12 members; average group size is about 3.5 members.

Out-of-Project Matches

Many project members have matches (sometimes of high quality) with non-members, but no qualifying matches with other project members. Often, too, a non-member will have an otherwise qualifying match with an existing matched group. We can not form matched groups between project members and non-members, nor include non-members in the groups. Project administration is not permitted access to non-members' DNA information.

Non-members with qualifying matches are invited to join the project, at which point their matches will be evaluated for inclusion in matched groups.

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Revised: 29 Mar 2014