This page is about the haplogroups of members of the Taylor Family Genes Project.
For many members, the nearest thing to a "match" that we have is their haplogroup
classification. When a STR match is found, it will certainly be within the same
Therefore, we present the genealogically-relevant information for these
members by the haplogroup
Y Haplogroup Tree
This schematic diagram shows the currently-accepted relationship of
macro-haplogroups to each other. A is the foundation human Y chromosome
haplogroup; all others spring from it.
Some of the haplogroups displayed have disappeared and are not found in the present
human population. Their past existence has been deduced by genetic research.
Distribution by Country
Haplogroups in the Project
The project contains several haplogroups, nine of the major haplogroups at present. They include
A haplogroup is a broad category of Y-DNA chromosomes, characterized by
certain mutations which have been identified and catalogued through
scientific research. A haplogroup includes many, many people; it does not
(with the present state of technology) typically define a specific paternal
lineage. A few "private" SNPs have been found which belong only to
Haplogroup naming patterns
Two systems are in common use for haplogroup names: phylogenetic naming and
Haplogroup names follow a system of progressively finer classification.
known as "phylogenetic names" because they indicate specific branches
and their locations on the
- The first letter, a capital, gives the broadest category in the human
- There are 20 of these haplogroups presently identified, represented by
the letters A
- That's typically followed by a number, which refines the classification;
- Only four of the 20 major haplogroups (N, P, Q, & S) have less than two sub-categories
(sub-clades) and none has more than six.
- Examples: R1, J2
- A lower-case letter adds more refinement to the classification;
- Another number refines the designation still further.
- More alternating letters and numbers continue adding precision to the
classification, making the haplogroup smaller and smaller.
As the haplogroup name gets longer, it refers to a smaller and more precisely-described
group of people.
An advantage of phylogenetic naming is that the place on teh Y-tree is
immediately apparent. A disadvantage is that the defining SNP is not immediately
Shorthand naming (by SNP):
In the shorthand system, haplogroup names are composed of the letter for the major group, a dash
and the name of the defining
SNP -- for example, "R1b1a2" is also "R-M269"and "R1b1a2a1a1" is also "R-U106".
Sub-clades (sub-divisions) of the haplogroups may also be designated by
the specific mutation associated with that
sub-clade, in order to shorten the name. These mutations are known as
SNPs for single-nucleotide polymorphisms.
- For example, "R1b1b2a1a1" (a sub-clade of R1b) is shortened to
"R-U106" because it is characterized by the presence of the U106 mutation.
(The SNPs S21 & M405 are also present, but "upstream" of U106.). This
is the "shorthand name". for the sub-clade.
For more on SNPs, see this
Advantages of this system are
(1) that the name for a subclade on far downstream branch is much shorter and
(2) that the presence of the subclade-defining
SNP is immediately apparent.
A disadvantage is that, unless one is thoroughly familiar with the the SNPs associated with a particular haplogroup,
the phylogenetic name and the location on the tree are not immediately apparent.
Other Haplogroup Facts
A common misconception is that adding designators to the end of the
phylogenetic haplogroup name changes the first part of the designation. It does not; it simply
refines the definition to a more precise one. R1b1b2a1b5 still falls within the
Haplogroup designations can and do change because of advances in the science.
Greater understanding leads to revising old mistakes. For example, the R1b haplogroup
recently underwent a re-organization of its sub-clades, due to new discoveries
of mutations. What was once R1b1b1 is now R1b1a2.
The most up-to-date version of the Y-chromosome phylogenetic tree is
maintained by ISOGG
and revised annually;
version is here. The most authoritative version is maintained by the
Y-Chromosome Consortium (YCC); the most current YCC version is for 2010 and
be found here.
Genealogical Meaning of Haplogroups
Unfortunately, a haplogroup designation doesn't say much about our more
recent ancestors -- those of less than 1,000 years ago. It is more telling
about our deep ancestry and ancient origins. An excellent map showing
haplogroup locations in ancient times is at
However, a difference in haplogroups does mean that two men can not have
shared a direct paternal ancestor within the period for which it's usually
possible to identify ancestors by names, dates and places.
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