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Taylor Haplogroup R1b

This page is about the Y chromosome haplogroup R1b. Its purpose is to explain the genealogical and anthropological meanings of the determination. Also see this page about both R1a and R1b.

Haplogroup R1b is the most common haplogroup in the British Isles -- more than 70% of all men and, in some regions, up to 90%. It has a similar frequency in the Taylor Family Genes Project (70%). We have more than 140 presently unmatched members in Hg R1b. We are working to find matches and group these members. If you are R1b, the chances are good (50 to 1) that you are also in the R1b1a2 sub-clade; the page about that sub-clade is here.

Haplogroup R1b also includes the Western Atlantic Modal haplotype (WAMH). Separate pages list members who:


As of this writing, Taylor Family Genes has 360 members in this haplogroup, about 71% of the total membership.

Almost all -- 98% -- of R1b Taylor Family Genes members are in the R1b1a2 (R-M269) subclade. Of those, 50 have tested SNPs for subclades of R1b1a2 and all have been found to be R1b1a2a1a (R-P310). Also, there is this from ISOGG:

"Haplogroup R1b1a2-M269 is observed most frequently in Europe, especially western Europe, but with notable frequency in southwest Asia... The Atlantic Modal Haplotype, or AMH, is the most common STR haplotype in haplogroup R1b1a2a1a1-L11/S127 and most European R1b1a2 belongs to haplogroups R1b1a2a1a1a-S21/U106 or R1b1a2a1a1b-P312/S116."

About this Haplogroup

Haplogroup R1b is believed to have originated less than 18.5 kya in West Asia; it may be as little as 4,000 years old  Its defining SNP is M343.

R1b is most frequent today in Western Europe (R1b1a2, R-M269) and parts of Sub-Saharan Central Africa (R1b1c, R-V88)).

The R1b haplogroup is a branch of the macro-group R; the other main variants are R1a (found mostly in central and eastern Europe) and R2 (found mainly in South Asia). R is believed to have originated 23-40 kya  (thousands of years ago) and R1b on the order of 20 kya..

R1b has recently undergone a major reclassification of its sub-clades and we expect more to come.  FTDNA classifications reflect subdivisions as agreed by the Y Chromosome Consortium in 2010, but perhaps not the the 2013 classifications by ISOGG .

R1b with no subsequent mutations is rare; most people in this haplogroup will fall into one of the sub-clades (R1b1a, R1b1b or R1b1c) with further testing; all share the SNP mutation known as M343. A common haplotype is the Atlantic Modal Haplotype (or haplotype 15), corresponding to subclade R1b1b2a1a.

Haplogroup projects

Members of this haplogroup may want to consider joining the DNA project for it. See or one of those listed at

Highest frequencies

Atlantic Europe:
Irish 93%, Basques 92%, Welsh 86%, Northern Portuguese 80%, Scottish 77%, English 75%, Belgians 70%, Spanish 65%, Dutch 65%, Southern Portuguese 60%, Bashkirs 55%, German 45%, Hausa 40%, Czechs and Slovaks 36%,  Italian 36%,

Others: Armenians 36%, Turkmens 35%, Chad 20-35% and Hazara 32%, Chadic speakers.

Graphic from Wikipedia, created by user Crates and used in accord with the license. (No copying for commercial use.)

Notice the wide light-red swath (15% frequency) running from the Baltic in the north to central Asia.

The darker red (25%) runs from Scandinavia also to Central Asia.

Next darker (40%) includes Iceland.& runs from western Scandinavia to northern Italy. 

The 50% swath runs through central Germany & France into the Iberian Peninsula.

The 80% (darkest red) swath includes northern Iberia (Spain & Portugal) , western France, Germany, and the British Isles.

The reader is advised to visit the information on Wikipedia.  

Origins & Spread

Rib may have developed in the northern part of the Middle East or on the steppes of the Caucasus during the Ice Age and is associated with the spread of Indo-European languages, farming and bronze tools and weapons. During the early Neolithic Age, R1b men crossed over from present-day Turkey to the Pontic-Caspian steppe and made the transition from the Stone Age to the Bronze Age. They were first to domesticate horses,  ~4,000 BC, and work bronze. Their horses and bronze weapons gave them a military and reproductive advantage in westward expansion over the older peoples of western Europe. Their Indo-European based languages came to replace the older languages of the Cro-Magnon peoples.

According to Kylosov and Tomezzoli, {paragraphing added}

diagram of R1b1a2 split into U106 & P312

Two Predominant Branches

Two branches predominate (98%+) among Taylors. They are

U106 and P312

Kylosov and Tomezzoli, hypothesized that the subclades R-U106 & P312 (98% of R1b Taylors) arose on the Iberian peninsula about 4.8 kya.

See the excellent maps and discussion at Eupedia.

It may be possible to predict with some reliability which of the two branches (U106 vs. P312) you're in from STR marker values. See this section.

Y-DNA Values

We do not publish individual members' Y-DNA results. They may be viewed on the Family Tree DNA public site,

However, STR values are useful for predicting which subclade of R1b you're in.

Predicting Subclades from STR Markers

R1b example

Of the R1b men in the project, 98% are predicted from STR values or confirmed by SNP testing to be R1b1a2 (shorthand, R-M269). The two predominant branches of R-M269 are

In other words, if your Y-chromosome is R1b of European origin, you are almost certain to be R-M269 and either R-U106 or R-P312. How to tell which?

Most STR markers are of little aid; only a few help to distinguish between these two subclades.

The best of these is DYS492 (#66 in the FTDNA panels); it shows a sharp distinction with little crossover; 95% of P312 men have DYS492 = 12 and 96% of U106 have DYS492 = 13.

If you have DYS492 <= 12, the odds are 20:1 that you are P312+; if DYS492 >= 13, the odds are 20:1 that you are U106+.


DYS390 (FTDNA #2) is moderately useful; 58% of U106 men have DYS390 <= 23, while 89% of P312 men have DYS390 >= 24.


DYS576 shows some distinction between U106 & P312; a problem is that DYS576 = 18 is almost equally likely to be in either subclade.

CDYa (#29, the smallest value of two CDY copies) has some distinguishing power. But, as the most volatile of all the markers, it shows considerable crossover between U106 & P312.

For your particular value at one of these markers, take the relative lengths of the bars in the graph as an indicator of which subclade you're likely to belong to. However, this will not be as definitive as actually testing for the SNPs.


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Revised: 12 Feb 2014